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Planning has two phases:

1. Strategic
2. Operational

Strategic Planning

  • Determine business objectives

  • Determine business strategic position

  • Undertake SWOT analysis

  • Decide upon required action

Business Objectives

Usually stated as:

  • Percentage return on investment

  • Profit after tax

  • Earnings per share

Business Strategic position

There are four considerations

1. Nature of business. What are the products or service offered? Which market does the business service?
2. Competitive position of the business. How does the business compete in the market place?
3. Attitudes of the decision-makers. How do the decision-makers react to risk? Are they innovative or conservative?
4. Image of the business. What relationship does the business want to have with customers, management, staff, shareholders / owners, suppliers, lenders and the community at large.

SWOT Analysis

S  Strengths
W Weaknesses
O Opportunities
T Treats

Operational Planning

  • Preparation of marketing, production and personnel plans

  • Financial plan including annual budget and cash flow statement

Marketing, Production and Personnel Plan

  • Research

  • Setting Sales Targets

  • Developing Policies

The Budget and Cash flow

  • The information contained in the marketing, production and personnel plans provides the basis for the budget and cash flow.

  • The budget consists of a budgeted profit and loss and balance sheet.

Profit and Loss Budget

  • Sales

  • Stock movements